Friday, May 22, 2020
Asthma and its effects on those residing in Boston as well as the overall state of Massachusetts - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 1989 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/07/31 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Asthma Essay Did you like this example? This report covers vital data related to asthma and, its effects on those residing in Boston as well as the overall state of Massachusetts. In this paper, relevant information concerning the condition including epidemiology of the disease, the population at risk/health status (race, age, gender), relevant epidemiology of geographic location (e.g. live, work and/or play), and time variables are incorporated. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Asthma and its effects on those residing in Boston as well as the overall state of Massachusetts" essay for you Create order Material concerning rates, causes, and risk factors are also included. According to study findings, only 1 in 4 Massachusetts adults define their asthma condition as well controlled (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Massachusetts SENSOR (Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk) Work-Related Asthma, 2007) and, even more children suffer from the condition in the state. This goes to show that this is an exceptionally critical public health matter to address and, that this condition needs to be further investigated to aid in decreasing the amount of asthma related cases. Source of the data: Most of the information encompassed in this paper was found using Mass.gov, google scholar, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) websites. Since this report is focused on asthma in Massachusetts and in particular, Boston (a large urban area within the state), it was crucial to obtain information directly from these government websites. Some search terms used while researching this condition include asthma risk factors, causes, prevalence, and incidence in Boston or Massachusetts. Ultimately, government websites were used as sources since the government has the most up to date epidemiological data and statistics regarding this area. Descriptive Epidemiology: Asthma is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. It is a progressive condition with exacerbations and remissions from time to time. Asthma causes the airways to become narrowed due to swelling and excessive mucus production. In turn, asthma negatively affects a person who has the condition by making it extremely difficult to breath regularly. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Asthma: Symptoms and Diagnosis, 2017) Person: It is important to note that worldwide, the extent of occurrence of asthma has been expanding since the year of 1980. This includes the prevalence among all age, gender, and racial groups. Among all states across the nation, the prevalence of asthma here in Massachusetts has been one of the most excessive. Children and Seniors 65 years and up have the most asthma related complications in relation to age in Massachusetts. However, children ages 0-4 have the highest overall rates in the state. Asthma inpatient hospitalization rates were highest in children ages 0 to 4 years old in the Boston area than that of the overall state of Massachusetts. Emergency room visits, and Asthma hospital observation stays were much higher for this age group in Boston as well. Compared to the state of Massachusetts, Boston has significantly higher rates overall. (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Health of Massachusetts, 2010) The ages with the highest ED discharges per 10,000 residents in Massa chusetts is among the 0-4 age group as well. (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Statistics about asthma, 2018) Figure 3 Age-Specific Rates of Emergency Department (ED) Visits Due to Asthma, Massachusetts Residents, 2009-2013 Data source: CY2011-2013 Massachusetts Emergency Department Discharge Database, Massachusetts Center for Health Information Throughout the course of 2010, 2013, and 2015 overall, a higher percentage of Black (20%) and Latino (18%) Boston female adult residents had asthma compared to White female adults (14%) and Asian female adults (7%). In 2015, Black residents ages 3-5 had the highest rate of asthma related visits to the emergency department. Statistics displayed that there were 558.8 ED visits per 10,000 residents ages 3-5. Black and Latino residents in every age group had higher rates when compared with White residents of all ages. The age-specific emergency department visit rate heightened by 15% in children aged 3-5 in relation to asthma as well. (Boston Public Health Commision, Health of Boston, 2016) The populations that are most at risk according to race and gender in the Boston area includes the black non-Hispanic race and the female gender. Overall, Boston displays a significantly higher rate of asthma among the female population compared to the entire state of Massachusetts. (Commonwealth of M assachusetts, Statistics about asthma, 2018) Level of Control among Massachusetts Children with Current Asthma, 2006-2010 Data source: CY2006-2010 MA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Asthma Call-back Survey This pie chart retrieved from the Mass.gov website displays crucial information about the level of control that kids have over their asthma here in Massachusetts throughout the years of 2006-2010. In this specific chart, it is evident that between the years of 2006-2010, 48.0% of the children who had asthma claimed that it was not well controlled, 33.8% of those interviewed in the call-back survey believed it was well controlled, and 18.2% believed that their asthma was very poorly controlled. This data reveals that a lesser amount or percentage of children from this sample in Massachusetts who had asthma thought that it was well controlled during this time-period. (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Statistics about asthma, 2018) Place: Boston children have higher rates of hospitalizations and emergency room visits due to asthma related complications than children throughout the whole state of Massachusetts. Throughout the 2011-2012 school period, over 15.9 % of children in Boston attending Kindergarten through 8th grade had asthma. This is a significantly larger prevalence than K-8 students statewide which was approximately 11.9 percent. Over 40% of children located in Massachusetts who were 18 and under and had asthma, missed school as well as daycare because of their symptoms from the year of 2006 to 2010. Parents in the area are also affected by asthma in children since typically, if their children miss daycare or school due to exacerbations, parents must miss a day of work to care for them which then disturbs productivity in the community. (The Facts About Pediatric Asthma, 1986) The statewide prevalence of pediatric asthma in the year of 2009 was reported as 10.9 percent (%) and the prevalence of pediatric ast hma in Boston was 13.9 percent (%) during that same time-period. By viewing the chart below, it is evident that the prevalence has increased in both areas since 2005. (Massachusetts Department of Public Health,Pediatric Asthma in Massachusetts 20082009, 2012) According to Mass.gov, work related asthma cases between 1993-2006 was highest among managerial and professional workers. This is since they had accounted for one-third of all cases (n=206, 32.6%). The most frequently reported occupations within this group were nurses and teachers. Operators, repair workers and laborers followed by auditing for 27.1% of cases (n=171) within the same time-period. Technical, sales and administrative workers accounted for 23.0% (n=145) of these work-related asthma cases. Asthma prevalence is known to be higher in urban neighborhoods due to susceptibility to impurities in the air such as pollution and a multitude of other environmental causes. Indoor air pollutants, cleaning products, dusts, chemicals, mold, and solvents are proclaimed to be the main environmental triggers. (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Massachusetts SENSOR (Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk) Work-Related Asthma, 2007) The above maps from the CDCs Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System display crude rates for the year of 2016. The crude rate, rather than the age adjusted rate, shows the actual number of cases over this year. The two maps display the crude rate for adults who had been told they currently have asthma. One map displays the results for adults within the 35-54-year-old age group, and the other displays the results for adults ages 65 and over in the same year (2016). It is noticeable that adults ages 65 and over had a higher crude prevalence rate (9.212.2%) as opposed to adults who were 35-54 years-old (9.210.7) within 2016 in Massachusetts. (CDC. BRFSS Prevalence Trends Data, 2018) Time: As previously stated, the extent of the occurrence of asthma has been expanding worldwide since the year of 1980. This chart displays this information in a more meaningful way, showing that the prevalence has increased over the years. (Akinbami, O. J., Moorman, J. E., Liu, X. (2011). Asthma prevalence, health care use, and mortality: United States, 2005-2009) Data Source: Akinbami, O. J., Moorman, J. E., Liu, X. (2011). Asthma prevalence, health care use, and mortality: United States, 2005-2009. This is a fact specifically in Massachusetts since epidemiological statistics displayed in the chart below show that even costs related to the disease have drastically increased from 2002 to 2013 in the state. (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Statistics about asthma, 2018) Figure 2. Total Charges for Hospitalizations Due to Asthma, Massachusetts Residents, 2002-2013 Data source: CY2002-2013 Massachusetts Hospitalization Discharge Database, Massachusetts Center for Health Information and Analysis Rates: The most current national and local prevalence and incidence rates available are from 2016. Nationally, children ages 5-14 have the highest prevalence of asthma at 10.1%., women at 10.4%, black non-Hispanic children at 15.7%, and those below 100% of the poverty level at 11.8%. The percent of persons with current asthma who reported having one or more asthma attacks is highest among those who are ages 18 and under at 53.7%. Mortality is highest among women of the black non-Hispanic race over 18 years old. Local data here in Massachusetts displays that 10.2% of adults currently have asthma. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Most Recent Asthma Data, 2018) Causes and Risk Factors: While the exact cause or etiology of each individual asthma case may not be known, and no cure exists, asthma can be controlled. Asthma can cause symptoms such as chest tightness, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, or even sneezing when allergic asthma is the case. (Asthma: Symptoms and Diagnosis, 2017) Symptoms may exacerbate as well, meaning that they become worse and a person having an attack requires immediate medical attention. Different people have varying or different symptoms and, the severity of the disease varies from person to person. The disease may even be deathly or cause disability if a person suffers from an asthma attack without getting immediate medical treatment. Asthma affects individuals differently resulting in differing severity, presentation of symptoms and, responsiveness to treatment (i.e. albuterol and steroid inhalers, respiratory therapy, and breathing treatments/nebulizers). (National Institutes of Health, Chronic Diseases: Asthma and You, 2011) Asthma prevalence is known to be higher in urban neighborhoods with lower incomes which makes these two factors risk factors for the disease. As previously mentioned, this is due to considerable and extensive susceptibility to impurities in the air such as pollution and a variety of other indoor and outdoor environmental causes. The typical asthma triggers that are due to environmental factors include indoor allergens such as pet dander, rodents, cockroaches, dust mites, and mold and outdoor allergens such as grass, pollen, weeds, florals, and trees. Other outdoor irritants include tobacco smoke, gas, chemical fumes, and various other strong odors. Exposure to things like air fresheners, cleaning products, pesticides, and perfumes/cologne, the common cold, influenza and other illnesses can trigger asthma as well. Stress, extensive exercise, medications/drugs, and food additives may trigger an asthma attack too. Weather conditions including cold air, or extremely dry, wet or windy wea ther can also have a largely negative impact on a persons asthma and maintaining its stability. (Gautier, C., Charpin, D,Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma, 2017) Data Source: 2006-2007 Massachusetts Adult Asthma Call-back Survey Conclusion: When asthma is well controlled, people who suffer from the chronic disease can sleep well through the night, attend school or work, and live normal, or even active lives. It is important to decrease the publics contact to asthma triggers and know factors that put people at risk to asthma. This will in turn prevent the expansion of the disease and allow better control of asthma symptoms. An asthma attack or exacerbation can be prevented by eliminating certain known environmental triggers. It is also crucial to take medication correctly, following a specific care plan, and taking action when symptoms worsen. (National Institutes of Health, Chronic Diseases: Asthma and You, 2011) Hypotheses: My research has brought me to hypothesize that environmental triggers play a crucial role in the prevalence of asthma however, it is unknown whether these triggers actually cause the disease. I consider these environmental triggers to be the most probable cause of asthma. The actual cause of the disease is currently unknown therefore, signifies the need for further research of these environmental triggers to determine which specific one produces the largest burden of disease.
Saturday, May 9, 2020
RELIGION CAUSES WAR: PROS AND CONS There are many arguments and counter-arguments when discussing the topic of religion causing war. Many critics argue that throughout history, religion has been the single greatest source of human-caused wars, suffering, and misery. In the name of God (by whatever name), more suffering has been inflicted than by any other man-made cause. (Pro Side) Critics on the other side counter that modern secular ideological movements are actually responsible for much greater and more indiscriminate violence than any religion ever has been. (Con Side) They further contend that the claim that religion causes war is not supported by the historical or contemporary evidence. They maintain that only 7 (10%) of allÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Let us see. Religious differences during the period of time coinciding with WWII led to discord between the people of Europe, whereby the Nazi Party rose upon a particular mans religious views. A passage from Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Mein Kampf states, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.Ã¢â¬ The Nazi Party blamed the Jewish people for the loss of World War I. It is beyond argument that by 1945, the genocide of six million Jewish people had been committed as a direct result of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s religious views. Bellum sacrum. With respect to the American Civil War, Wikipedia references a body of scholarship, led by Mark Knoll, that has highlighted the fact that the American debate over slavery became a shooting war in part because the two sides reached diametrically opposite conclusions based on reading the same authoritative source of guidance on moral questions: the King James Version of the Bible. Specifically, the pro-slavery South could point to slaveholding by the godly patriarch Abraham (Gen 12:5; 14:14; 24:35Ã¢â¬â36; 26:13Ã¢â¬â14), a practice that was later incorporated into Israelite national law (Lev 25:44Ã¢â¬â46). It was never denounced by Jesus, who made slavery a model of discipleship (Mk 10:44). The Apostle Paul supported slavery, counseling obedience to earthly masters (Eph 6:5Ã¢â¬â9; Col 3:22Ã¢â¬â25) as aShow MoreRelatedCauses of the Wars of Religion.951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe political causes of the wars of religion. Throughout history in contemporary Spain before the civil war, violence against persons associated with the Catholic Church, the symbols of their religion or their interests, has been known for its recurrent and prolonged in time as one of the salient dimensioned Spanish anticlericalism, which emerged in the liberal political ideology, then it would be taken up by more radical republican currents and the movement of the workers. were five killingsRead MoreDoes Religion Cause War?1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDoes religion cause war? Every culture and society in the world has some form of religion. The most popular religions in the world today are Christianity, Buddhism, and the Muslim religions. Other religious sects exist amongst distinct groups. Every religion has some form of philosophy or ideology followed by members. One common thing about the existing religions is the presence of a supreme being. The Supreme Being exists in many names with different abilities depending on every religion. TheRead MoreDoes Religion Cause War653 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesReligion causes war. This is a matter of historical fact. Since time immemorial, men have fought each other in wars caused by religion. There are at least three instances by which religion causes war. The first is when people try to compel other people to adopt their religion or religious perspectives. This comes from our innate tendency to want other people to subscribe to our beliefs. That desire can be accompanied with a strong zeal such that if others are impervious to our peaceful approachRead MoreDoes Religion Cause War?1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDoes religion cause war? On this planet Earth, there have been many wars fought over many different things. They can range from freedom, oil, and religion. There were many wars fought over religion. For example, the thirty years war. The thirty years war was one of the major wars fought over religion. It was mostly fought in whatÃ¢â¬â¢s now Germany. The thirty years war was one of the absolute longest and most destructive, and brutal conflicts in European history. The war was mainly between ProtestantsRead MoreDoes Religion Cause Wars?1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere is a conventional belief among many individuals that religion is the main cause of the present and past wars inflicting torment within the world. However, many humans fail to see past that belief; they are unable to understand that religion is just a small factor amongst the many contributing to the cause of wars. In fact, religion is merely a tool and an excuse used to hide the need for power and sins of the human nature. Among these factors, it may be the misinterpretation of religious teachingsRead MoreCan Religion Be A Cause Of War?1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCan Religion be a cause of War? For centuries religion has impacted the world greatly, having an influence amongst people and their society that cause them to behave in certain ways. Throughout history religion has played a grand role in undertaking the parts that have structured many positive and negative effects in the world. People have been killed for what they believe, and people have as well killed in the name of their God. Religion has been the motivation and reason for many people to makeRead MoreDoes Religion Cause War?1790 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Religion is a cause of all wars, is a phrase which is often heard and said by many. The question here is, does religion really cause wars? It may not be the reason for all the wars that have taken place since this world came into existence but several wars which have been fought in the past and today are done so on the basis of religion. Religious wars are ones which are fought and then justified by religion. These wars can involve one nation fighting against another who have different beliefsRead More Religion Causes War Essay2331 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesReligion has played a major role in the lives of most cultures whether it is Christian, Islamic, Judaism, or another religious faith, but has it been the leading cause of war throughout history? God refers to sin as being the force that drives the world it provokes conduct involving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh and mind. Richard Dawkins an evolutionist, and agnostic, states that Ã¢â¬Å"religion causes wars by generating certaintyÃ¢â¬ (Thacker). When he implies certainty in his quote, does he mean that this is a fact he isRead MoreDoes Religion Cause War? Essay1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReligion has its shares of promoting violence. Many will argue that a cause of religion wars is for economic and political reasons, but others argue that those who start wars are, by definiti on, not religious. In reality, separating religion out of economic and political motives can be involved in such a way finding religious motives innocent of much. Excuses for Christianity responsibilities cannot be accepted whether the person has misappropriated the message of Christ. The primarily set of doctrinesRead More2- Religion Does Not Cause Wars860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReligion Causes War. So often is this sentiment heard in the best sellers from Richard Dawkins to Sam Harris that it has almost become a proverb. It is said so often that people believe it without question. But, in fact, religion does not cause war. If you are an atheist, I ask for your intellectual honesty in evaluating this question. You have every right to believe what you will, but we should all be honest and not sling mud where it is not warranted. Laying war at the feet of religion
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page. Ã¢â¬ ? Augustine of Hippo. This was my favourite quotation of St. We will write a custom essay sample on My favorite quotation of St. Augustine or any similar topic only for you Order Now Augustine, through my high school years we are taught about his life, journeys and teachings. I have live a Augustinian life, being a follower of Christ he is the one behind all of my success and failures. I may not be one of the best students from my batch but at least once I have proven that I give my best. Yes, I have proven myself and before that happens I almost failed, lost hope and even give up but courage to prove myself become my persuasion for not giving up to achieve all the success in education and in life. A teacher told me about inventing or improving a scientific investigatory project, which me and my group mates once studied and improve. While doing this we struggle searching for parts and materials we need to complete our product. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost two weeks before the deadline but there is still a part of our project missing. We almost lost our hope submitting our project but yet my classmate broke her calculator and weÃ¢â¬â¢ve found the exact material that we need to complete this project. After inserting the material needed, finally it worked. Then, we have a week to finish the paper and ask some people to react about our said project. Some questioned it and some thought that it was amazing and good because we can lessen the use of electricity and benefit the solar heat from the sun. On the day of the submission we have to face our teacher and defend our product made, who would thought that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got the highest grade among the class and have the chance to compete in the congress? We never did, it was one of the successful moments for me in my secondary level. In the science congress, we tried our best to win, impress the judges and encourage the audience to see our product and vote for it. Our competitors also has cool, different and creative inventions or innovations. Though we never succeeded on to win the science congress, I still felt happiness and contented just by submitting our project and getting those grades. This is one achievement, I think I had not because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a high grade, but because I have work on it hard and make everything in it creative and different. I want to achieve more, and I think by entering the University this institution will help me gain more achievement and train me more to become creative. I could tell also that it is not just pure creativity that we need in order to finish one project, it could also be team work. Life could be a tough road to travel through but if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t face the tough road we can never extend our talent and creativity. Our day to day experience is a daily lesson we must understand. We may give up but we can never achieve success if we easily loose hope. How to cite My favorite quotation of St. Augustine, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Shelbi Neidler Professor Emilie Zickel English 100 8 November 2013 The Successor That Once Failed Steve Jobs did not fit the norm of being a college graduate when speaking at a college graduation. On June 12th, 2005, Jobs presented Ã¢â¬Å"Steve JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ 2005 Stanford Commencement Address. Ã¢â¬ Jobs completed only six months of college before deciding that he was unsure how college would help his future, but he audited classes for another 18 months. Jobs is a renowned CEO, but he did not earn this position easily. Throughout JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, he discusses several unknown, personal experiences. Jobs makes a connection with the audience by telling three intimate stories, discussing failure, and using simplistic sentence structure and words. Jobs is chosen to speak at the 2005 Stanford commencement by Spencer Porter and his fellow class presidents (Porter). They asked Jobs to speak because Jobs is very successful. Porter states, Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what my classmates and I expected him to talk about. We will write a custom essay sample on Steve Jobs Rhetorical Analysis Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But he told three stories about failureÃ¢â¬ (Porter). JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is directed toward the Stanford college graduates, the professors and staff attending the graduation, and the parents and family of the college graduates. Later, JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is shared with the public, making his audience much larger and more diverse. The stories Jobs tells are easy to connect to and comprehend. The audience may or may not be familiar with Jobs; everyone, however, can still relate to the topics he addresses. Jobs is known for being the CEO of Apple, along with his computer and technology skills. Throughout JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, he told three personal stories. The first was about connecting the dots, the second was about love and loss, and the third story was about death. These three stories captured the attention of the audience by connecting with them on a personal level. In the first story, Jobs discusses dropping out of college. Jobs did not know what he wanted from life or if college was right for him. This part of his first story uses logos because it would not have been logical for Jobs to waste money and attend college if he is unsure about his future. He took a calligraphy class that later helped him when he was building his first Mac. By Ã¢â¬Å"connecting the dots,Ã¢â¬ Jobs realized that his calligraphy skills were useful in designing the font. In JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ second story, he discusses starting Apple in his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ garage. At the age of 30, Apple fired him after he cofounded the company. After being rejected, Jobs realized he was still in love with his job and was not ready to give up on his dream. In the third story, Jobs discusses his diagnosis of cancer. While telling his story of cancer, Jobs states that Ã¢â¬Å"Remembering that Ill be dead soon is the most important tool Ive ever encountered to help me make the big choices in lifeÃ¢â¬ (Jobs). Jobs learned from his near death experience that there was no trap of thinking he had something to lose. While going through this experience, Jobs learned the value of life. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ three stories are unique to his own personal experience. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ three stories discuss connecting the dots, love and loss, and death. Although his stories are specific, the audience has personal experiences that fall under these categories. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ first story explains the background behind the font of the first Macintosh computer. In his second story, Jobs discusses being fired from his own company, but still loving his job. After being fired, he met his wife and worked harder to prove to the company that he was meant to be there. Jobs states that Ã¢â¬Å"I didnt see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my lifeÃ¢â¬ (Jobs). JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ third story explores the topic of death. Jobs shares his story of overcoming cancer. Jobs conveys ethos while telling these stories because they are are personal experiences, making him credible. These personal stories allow the audience to recognize that JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ success was not simply handed to him. Jobs wants the audience to understand that they must work hard for what they want, just like he has worked hard to achieve his successes. Jobs also tells these stories for others to learn from his mistakes. This strategy helps Jobs achieve his goal of preparing the graduates for their future by giving them an insight on his life and struggles. He has worked through many trials and tribulations. It is especially interesting that Jobs chose to discuss his troubles and failures in a commencement speech. Jobs employs irony when discussing how failure led him to success. Throughout JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ three stories, he discusses different failures. Jobs is well-known for his success and achievements, but many do not know his journey. Jobs discusses failure at a college commencement to promote success and to teach that failure is not always a dead end. Jobs is also preparing the college graduates for their road ahead; if they follow their hearts, they will succeed. Jobs states that Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brickÃ¢â¬ (Jobs). By this, Jobs is saying that sometimes people need a reality check. While discussing failure, Jobs uses pathos. Failure is an emotional topic that no one wants to face. Failing before succeeding will only push one to work harder. Sometimes one must fail in order to succeed. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy of discussing failure helps to achieve his goal of promoting success by giving the entire audience a sense of hope for their futures. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ stories of failure do not only apply to the graduates, but the entire public. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is applicable to everyone by using simplistic language. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is directed toward the Stanford Class of 2005, but has relevance to anyone. Because Jobs is a popular public figure, his speech was publicized. The stories and life experiences he shares during his speech can be understood by age because of the simple words and sentence structures Jobs uses. For example, Jobs offers advice such as Ã¢â¬Å"Dont let the noise of others opinions drown out your own inner voiceÃ¢â¬ (Jobs). Jobs offers this advice using very simple words. This is one of JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies because he knew that there were going to cameras, parents, professors, administration, and the public eye watching and listening to his speech. His speech is appropriate for all ages because it is written for those with the lowest levels of education. For example, most newspapers and magazines are written at a basic reading level and that is how this speech is written. Jobs receives positive feedback because everyone can understand his simplistic language and purpose. The strategy of using simplistic words helps Jobs achieve his goal of connecting with the audience by allowing them to easily comprehend what he is saying. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ goal is to make a positive impact on the lives of the public by simply telling them personal stories of failure that did not stop him. Overall, JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech makes multiple connections with the audience. JobsÃ¢â¬â¢ speech discusses three intimate stories and failure while through simplistic words. Although his speech is presented to Stanford UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s graduating class of 2005, it applies to the entire public. Jobs chose to discuss failure to ensure that there are positive outcomes after failing. Jobs connected with his audience while engaging in logos by discussing his logic of saving money and dropping out of college, elaborating with ethos by telling personal stories, and using pathos when discussing failure.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Invention of the Mirror Who invented the first mirror?Ã Humans and our ancestors probably used pools of still water as mirrors for hundreds of thousands or even millions of years. Later, mirrors of polished metal or obsidian (volcanic glass) gave wealthy preeners a more portable view of themselves.Ã Obsidian mirrors from 6,200 BCE were discovered at Catal Huyuk, the ancient city near modern-day Konya, Turkey.Ã People in Iran used polished copper mirrors at least as early as 4,000 BCE.Ã In what is now Iraq, one Sumerian noble-woman from about 2,000 BCE called the Lady of Uruk had a mirror made of pure gold, according to a cuneiform tablet discovered in the ruins of that city.Ã In the Bible, Isaiah scolds Israelite women who were haughty and walk[ed] with necks outstretched, ogling and mincing as they go...Ã He warns them that God will do away with all of their finery - and their brass mirrors!Ã Ã A Chinese source from 673 BCE casually mentions that the queen wore a mirror at her girdle, indicating that this was a well-known technology there, as well.Ã The earliest mirrors in China were made from polished jade; later examples were made from iron or bronze.Ã Some scholars suggest that the Chinese acquired mirrors from the nomadic Scythians, who were in contact with Middle Eastern cultures as well, but it seems just as likely that the Chinese invented them independently. But what about the glass mirror we know today?Ã It also came about surprisingly early. Who was it, then, that made a sheet of glass, backed with metal, into a perfect reflecting surface? As far as we know, the first mirror-makers lived near the city of Sidon, Lebanon, some 2,400 years ago.Ã Since glass itself likely was invented in Lebanon, its not too surprising that it was the site of the earliest modern mirrors. Unfortunately, we do not know the name of the tinkerer who first came up with this invention. To make a mirror, pre-Christian Lebanese or Phoenicians blew a thin sphere of molten glass into a bubble, and then poured hot lead into the bulb of glass. The lead coated the inside of the glass. When the glass cooled, it was broken and cut into convex pieces of mirror. These early experiments in the art were not flat, so they must have been a bit like fun-house mirrors. (Users noses probably looked enormous!) In addition, early glass was generally somewhat bubbly and discolored. Nonetheless, the images would have been much clearer than those obtained by looking into a sheet of polished copper or bronze. The blown bubbles of glass used were thin, minimizing the impact of the flaws, so these early glass mirrors were a definite improvement over earlier technologies. The Phoenicians were masters of the Mediterranean trade routes, so its no surprise that this wonderful new trade object quickly spread throughout the Mediterranean world and the Middle East.Ã The Persian emperor Darius the Great, who ruled around 500 BCE, famously surrounded himself with mirrors in his throne room to reflect his glory.Ã Mirrors were used not only for self-admiration, but also for magical amulets.Ã After all, theres nothing like a clear glass mirror to repel the evil eye!Ã Mirrors were commonly thought to reveal an alternate world, in which everything was backward.Ã Many cultures also believed that mirrors could be portals into supernatural realms.Ã Historically, when a Jewish person died, his or her family would cover all of the mirrors in the household to prevent the deceased persons soul from being trapped in the mirror.Ã Mirrors, then, were very useful but also perilous items! For much more information on mirrors, as well as many other interesting topics, see Mark Pendergrasts book Mirror Mirror: A History of the Human Love Affair with Reflection, (Basic Books, 2004).
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Email Matters Email Matters Email Matters By Maeve Maddox The ease of dashing off an email is both a convenience and a deadly snare. Emails are not as public as a Twitter tweet, but can lead to grief for the unwary. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all heard the horror stories of the jokester who says something outrageous intended for the eyes of a friend, and then hits the Ã¢â¬Å"Reply AllÃ¢â¬ button by mistake. Because thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always the chance that an email might go astray, the best practice is what I call the Ã¢â¬Å"Klingon ruleÃ¢â¬ : DonÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything in an email that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want a third party to read. (I think it was General Chang in StarTrek VI who said he never uttered anything he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be overheard. Klingons are always under surveillance.) One way to avoid embarrassing situations with clients or employers is to make a habit of treating every email with care, even the ones you dash off to your friends. Human frailty being what it is, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s probably no way to avoid saying or typing something stupid at some time or another, but a few tips can save some embarrassment. Common courtesy is the key to writing an email that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come back to bite you. Courtesy when writing an email means considering such things as the fact that not everyone can read tiny type or understand texting abbreviations. Depending upon the recipient, sloppy English or attempts at humor can prove deal breakers. In these tippy-toe times of political correctness, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take much to offend some people. No one, however, is likely to take offence at standard usage and conventional formatting. Email Address A snappy email handle may amuse your friends, but if you use your account for business as well as social correspondence, you may want to avoid choosing a handle like redhotpapa or partygirl. As the first thing the recipient sees, it can affect the spirit in which the message is received. Subject Line Put something meaningful in the subject line. Be as specific as possible, even for your friends. Instead of Ã¢â¬Å"HiÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Hello,Ã¢â¬ type something that refers to the message. No one enjoys having to sort through hundreds of emails in order to double check one of them. Font Leave the fancy script and colored text for homemade greeting cards. Choose an easy-to-read font and a dark font color. Dark blue is all right, but black is better. Red is the hardest color to read. Big is better than small. Use a minimum of 12-point. Upper- and Lower-case Use lowercase type with capitals where capitals are called for. Lowercase is easier to read than all caps, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to extremes and omit capitals altogether. Friends may not mind, but a business colleague may interpret lack of capitalization as evidence of lack of education or energy. Spelling Spell correctly. Use conventional abbreviations. Save texting code for texting. Punctuation ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy enough to misinterpret a written message. Reread what you have written before hitting Send. See if the addition of a comma or other punctuation might make your meaning clearer. Salutation Begin your email with the recipientÃ¢â¬â¢s name. For a friend or associate, the first name is the obvious salutation. Otherwise, use the full name. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t often see Ã¢â¬Å"Dear So-and-SoÃ¢â¬ in electronic correspondence; beginning with the name alone is sufficient. Close The way you end your email will depend upon your relationship with the recipient and the nature of the email. If you are reporting bad news or responding to it, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to close by writing Ã¢â¬Å"CheersÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Have a nice day.Ã¢â¬ Here are some options: Best, Best regards, Best wishes, Cheers, Cordially, Kindest regards, I remain yours truly, Regards, Sincerely, Take care, Thanks again, Warmest regards, Yours. If you have asked someone to do something time-consuming for you, your close can be even longer: Thanks for your time and consideration. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Business Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Definitely use "the" or "a"50 Idioms About Roads and PathsCharles's Pen and Jesus' Name
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Organizational Development - Research Paper Example It can be revealed that Fourwinds Marina which is one of the most extensive as well as complete marinas of its type in the United States occupies four acres of land. Jack Keltner had been the general manager of the Fourwinds Marina while the President of the Taggart Corporation, Sandy Taggart has been the owner of the Fourwinds Marina and the Inn of the Fourwinds. The main problem as pointed out by the Taggart has been the lack of knowledge of marina business along with lack of experienced general managers. Therefore from the case study it can be analyzed that there is requirement of major organizational development initiatives. Keltner seems to have analyzed the problems that the organization was facing and took steps in order to correct them in order to improve the organizational effectiveness. He analyzed that major changes were required over one year period. This report consists of the SWOT analysis of the organization and implication of the analysis. It also tries to describe th e marinas strategy and the organization and tries to list the KeltnerÃ¢â¬â¢s list of actions. ... Moreover the Inn is successful enough in providing the customers with all the facilities required by them. Lack of experienced managers as well as knowledge on managing the marine is one of the weaknesses. In addition to this Bouys have not been a profitable segment for the organization which demonstrates lack of managerial expertise. Weak financial position has also been one of the problems of the company. The major threats for the organization is that The Indiana Department of Natural Resources exercises total control over the rates that can be charged on slip rental as well as room rates at the inn. Jack Keltners management strategy can be considered as an opportunity to improve the organizational efficacy. Implication of the SWOT Analysis After conducting the SWOT analysis, it can be revealed that there are major problems that Fourwinds Marine faced that hampers the effective operation of the organization. The strengths of Fourwinds Marine indicate that the company can aim at bec oming the market leader in the particular segment. The weaknesses indicate that there is need for immediate actions in order to overcome them. The threats indicate that the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have control over the rates and the prices. From the opportunity analyzed it can be revealed that companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall operation can be enhanced. Marinas Strategy The strategy adopted by the marina can be considered as deliberate strategy. The slips need to be reserved by November 15 of each year or the slip is subject to sale on first-come basis. The slips are rented for a year and the amount varies depending upon the size of slip. The company adopts various boat rental strategies in order to meet the demands during the peak season. In order to protect the boats that are left in the water during